It sounds like Charley is mostly being an adolescent, and testing the boundaries. I don't think you've done anything "wrong" in your training. He's just the equivalent of a teenage boy right now.
I found that Kodi was at his most demanding between 8 and 18 months... sort of right where you are. He didn't scratch at the door, but he did a lot of jumping when he wanted something, and the demand barking drove me to distraction!!!
Remember that it's MUCH easier to teach them to "do" something than it is to teach them "not to do" something. So try to come up with replacement behaviors for the things that drive you most crazy. For the others, do your best to TOTALLY ignore them. That's the best way to get them to stop, although you are likely to get an "extinction burst" (they might do it a LOT more!!!) for a short period before totally giving up.
I'm not quite sure what to do about the door scratching. I'd hate to have a dog scratching up my door, but it's great that he lets you know when he needs to go out. I'm not sure how you differentiate between the potty runs and the times he just wants you to open the door. You sure don't want to guess wrong and cause him to have an accident in the house!
Kodi didn't develop his "signal" to go out until he was past that very demanding phase, so I never had to sort that piece out!