The first rabies vaccination given to a puppy is for 1 year. In my state they are revaccinated after that year with the 3 year one and don't need another for 3 more years.
If your state requires a rabies vaccination every year, the 2006 AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines states the following:
Rabies 1-year killed vaccination:
Initial Puppy Vaccination at approximately 16 weeks - one dose as early as 3 months of age
Initial Adult vaccination at more than 16 weeks - administer as a single dose
Revaccination (Booster) - Annually. State, provincial and or local laws apply. The 1-year rabies vaccine may be used as a booster vaccine when dogs are required by statute to be vaccinated annually against rabies.
Comments and Recommendations: State, provincial, and local statues govern the frequency of adminstration for products labeled as "1-year rabies vaccines". The 1-year rabies vaccine is sometimes administered as the initial dose followed by 1 year later by administration of the 3-years rabies vaccine. State, provincial, and local statutes may dictate otherwise. When given annually, 1-year rabies products should not be considrered to cause fewer adverse reactions than 3-year rabies products.
Please see the following link http://www.drugs.com/vet/rabvac-1.html
There is a one year rabies vaccination called the Rabvac-1.