When I picked up buddy at the breeder they gave me a small harness to use at that time. I never used a single collar because I did not want to hurt his neck. He pulled when first got him. I never used crate training or put him in a fenced crate outside. Fortunately, i to have a fenced in backyard so it was like easier when he had to go potty just to go out the back door. These dogs really thrive with human contact. I’m with buddy 24/7 and he sleeps with me at night even the first day I took him home from the breeder. He slept all night in my bed and didn’t get up. He was housetrained at three months and recently got neutered. So, no matter what you do or methods you take, he needs to know that you’re always around and watching. He’ll send signals to you when he has to go. Unfortunately, puppies can’t hold themselves. Buddy doesn’t like being confined. So without the fenced in backyard, I suggest to put a harness on him, give him about a10ft circle and attached a bungee cord to stake in ground. I never left him alone. Final word. Take him out at least every hour. Quiet place. No people or pets. These dogs love to play and get very distracted. Always same route.